Ethics of Transplantation

Emma Massey and David Rodríguez-Arias: February 2018

Ethics of Transplantation General

0 CME Credits 

  • Ethics in transplantation E-Book
  • On patients who purchase organs abroad
  • Estimating the risks of acquiring a kidney abroad: A meta-analysis of complications following participation in transplant tourism.
  • Commercialization of kidney transplants: A systematic review of outcomes in recipients and donors.
  • Interviews With Patients Who Traveled From Macedonia/Kosovo, The Netherlands, and Sweden for Paid Kidney Transplantations.
  • Reporting organ trafficking networks: a survey-based plea to breach the secrecy oath.
  • The AMA Code of Medical Ethics' Opinions on Confidentiality of Patient Information
  • Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal: stimulating and enhancing partnerships between transplant professionals and law enforcement.
  • Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal and the ethical and legal obligations of healthcare providers.
  • Organ trafficking and transplant tourism: the role of global professional ethical standards—the 2008 Declaration of Istanbul.
  • Policy statement of Canadian society of transplantation and Canadian Society of Nephrology on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism.
  • Indicators to Identify Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal.
  • Childress, J. F. (2014). "Difficulties of Determining Death: What Should We Do About the 'Dead Donor Rule'?"
  • International perspective on the diagnosis of death
  • Philosophical Debates About the Definition of Death: Who Cares?
  • The Brain and Somatic Integration: Insights Into the Standard Biological Rationale for Equating ``Brain Death'' With Death
  • The Dead-Donor Rule and the Future of Organ Donation
  • Increasing Donation Opportunities for Vascularized Composite Allografts
  • A Lifesaving View of Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation
  • Hand Transplantation Versus Hand Prosthetics: Pros and Cons.
  • Gender-Mismatch in VCA/Organ Transplant
  • Looking the World in the Face
  • Womb transplants with live births: an update and the future
  • A Preliminary Report of Penile Transplantation
  • 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.
  • Bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct
  • AMA Journal of Ethics® Illuminating the art of medicine
  • The Ethics of Organ Transplantation: A Brief History
  • The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation
  • Donation after circulatory determination of death: What information to whom?
  • Ethical guidelines for the evaluation of living organ donors
  • The ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT): from ‘what’ to ‘how’ of psychosocial screening – a pilot study
  • Nephrologists' Perspectives on Recipient Eligibility and Access to Living Kidney Donor Transplantation.
  • Between Scylla and Charybdis: charting an ethical course for research into financial incentives for living kidney donation.
  • Living and Deceased Organ Donation Should Be Financially Neutral Acts
  • Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation: Reducing Financial Barriers to Live Kidney Donation--Recommendations from a Consensus Conference.
  • Death and organ donation: meeting the needs of multiethnic and multifaith populations.
  • Achieving equality in organ donation and transplantation in the UK: challenges and solutions
  • Attitudes to deceased organ donation and registration as a donor among minority ethnic groups in North America and the UK: a synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research
  • Print Me an Organ? Ethical and Regulatory Issues Emerging from 3D Bioprinting in Medicine.
  • 3D bioprint me: a socioethical view of bioprinting human organs and tissues.
  • Challenges to research and innovation to optimize deceased donor organ quality and quantity.
  • Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members.

Ethics of Transplantation Module 1

3 CME Credits 

Foundation of Transplantation Ethics (James F. Childress)
  • Principles
  • Principles 2
  • Living organ donation
  • Organ allocation
Death determination and the dead donor rule (DAVID RODRIGUEZ-ARIAS)
  • Organ donation in the history of death determination
  • Death determination in brain-dead donors
  • Death determination in circulatory-dead donors
  • End-of-life, organ procurement, and the Dead Donor Rule
Informed consent to donation after death (DAVID SHAW)
  • Informed consent to donation after death 1/3
  • Informed consent to donation after death 2/3
  • Informed consent to donation after death 3/3
Ethical considerations in allocation of deceased donor organs (UNDINE SAMUEL)
  • Ethical principles in organ allocation
  • Background of Eurotransplant
  • General introduction into allocation strategies
  • Waiting list
  • Development of deceased donors
  • Guiding principles in allocation
  • Overview of transplantations
Living donor psychosocial assessment and selection (FABIENNE DOBBELS)
  • Why should you perform psychosocial screening in living donor candidates?
  • What should you screen for?
  • How to perform this in clinical practice: the EPAT Tool?

Ethics of Transplantation Module 2

2 CME Credits 

Ethical aspects of research in deceased donation (Rutger J Ploeg)
  • Ethical aspects of research in deceased donation
Inequities in access to living donor kidney transplantation (Allison Tong)
  • Introduction
  • Barriers and disparities in LKD
  • Patient, donor and clinician perspectives
  • Improving access: Removing financial disincentives, education, transplant liaison or navigator
Paying for Organs (Willem Weimar)
  • Why we need more donor kidneys
  • Ethical issues and justification of living kidney donation
  • The economics of kidney transplantation
  • Paid kidney donation
The rights and duties of transplant professionals in organ trade (Frederike Ambagtsheer)
  • The difference between organ trade and organ trafficking
  • Transplant professionals and organ trade
  • When does a kidney transplant abroad become illegal?
  • Pre- and post transplant recommendations
  • Take home messages and further reading
Religious codes of ethics and organ donation and transplantation (Gurch Randhawa)
  • Introduction
  • Diverse populations and impact upon demand for organs
  • Diverse populations – organ donor/recipient disparity
  • Engagement of Faith Communities
  • Organ donation in multi-ethnic and multi-faith communities – the potential way forward?

Ethics of Transplantation Module 3

Ethical analysis of contraindications for transplantation (Greg Moorlock)
  • Why is this important and what are ethically contentious contraindications?
  • How can we make good use of available organs?
  • Should alcoholics receive liver grafts?
  • Should obese patients receive transplants?
  • The ethics of using lower quality organs
Ethical Considerations in New and Emerging Forms of Transplantation (Katrina Bramstedt)
  • Ethical dilemmas in VCA - Part 1
  • Ethical dilemmas in VCA - Part 2
  • 3D bioprinting of organs
  • How to analyze & solve ethical dilemmas
  • Conclusions